Missouri Encyclopedia logo

Celia, the property of Robert Newsom, stood trial in Fulton, Missouri, in 1855 for the murder of her master, a…

Cyprian Clamorgan’s The Colored Aristocracy of St. Louis. [Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, MHS Library, Lib197-00001]

The grandson of Jacques Clamorgan, Cyprian Clamorgan wrote The Colored Aristocracy of St.…

Painting titled Cler-mónt, First Chief of the Tribe, by George Catlin, 1834. [Smithsonian American Art Museum, SAAM-1985.66.29_1]

Following the death of Clermont (Gra-Mon or “Arrow-Going-Home”) in 1796, his son, also…

Oliver Cromwell Cox as he appeared in Lincoln University’s yearbook in 1962. [The Archives, Lincoln University, 1962]

Oliver Cromwell Cox was arguably one of the most controversial mid-twentieth-century social…

A detail from Thomas Hutchins’s 1778 map of the Illinois Country showing Ste. Genevieve, Kaskaskia, and Fort de Chartres. [Courtesy of the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection, Image 5045002]

During the first half of the eighteenth century, marriages between Native Americans and…

Jeffrey Deroine (second from right) with Ioways. [State Historical Society of Missouri, Robert Wright Photograph Collection, P0011]

Jeffrey Deroine (pronounced Der-oh-NAY…

Herman Dreer. [State Historical Society of Missouri, UMSL Black History Project Photograph Collection, S0336-167]

Herman Dreer, a respected Black St. Louis educator and scholar, was born on September 12,…

Paul Follenius. [State Historical Society of Missouri, William G. Bek Photograph Collection, P0586]

Paul Follenius, the cofounder with

Lloyd Gaines. [University of Missouri School of Law, Lloyd Gaines Collection]

Lloyd Gaines’s efforts to obtain a legal education in Missouri resulted in a Supreme Court…

Gert Goebel. [Courtesy of Edith Moore]

Gert Goebel came to Missouri in 1834 as an eighteen-year-old German immigrant, settling in…